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優格(Yogurt)-食材介紹

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發表於 2017-2-13 16:48:53 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
優格主要原料就是牛奶與乳酸菌種,將牛奶經高溫殺菌後冷卻,加入乳酸菌種,靜置在特定溫度下,讓乳酸發酵,這時牛奶的PH值下降,蛋白質從球狀蛋白轉化為鏈狀蛋白,產生凝固現象,當牛奶凝結成固體狀時,優格即製作完成。
優格含有牛奶所有的營養素,除了蛋白質外,還有維生素AB,礦物質鈣、磷、鉀、鎂及乳酸菌、鉻蛋白、乳清蛋白等。
乳酸菌的種類繁多,依美國FDA規定,優格應使用保加利亞乳酸桿菌(Lactobacillus bulgaricus)與嗜熱鏈球菌(Streptococcusthermophilus)為基礎菌種製成,不過台灣無此限制,市面上的優格大多含數種菌種,不同菌種製成的優格風味不同,但對於人體腸胃道皆有保健功效。
乳酸菌高度的分解能力,能將牛奶中部分乳糖分解成乳酸(30~40%),乳蛋白與乳脂被分解成小分子型態,使人體更好吸收,營養價值提高,對於有乳糖不耐症的朋友,選擇優格可減少腸胃不適的問題。另外乳酸能刺激腸道蠕動、抑制腸內有害菌增殖,維持菌叢間的生態平衡並提高人體免疫能力。
在發酵過程中,乳酸菌會將牛奶中的蛋白質分解為小分子的胺基酸,提高人體吸收及消化率。優格中所含的蛋白質分成以下兩種:
(1) 酪蛋白(Casein) (固體部分)
酪蛋白分子大分解速度較緩慢,可長時間維持體內的胺基酸濃度,因此有不少專家建議優格可在睡前吃,利用睡眠時間讓乳酸菌在腸道製造好菌,並穩定地吸收蛋白質,幫助肌肉修復與合成。
(2) 乳清蛋白(Whey) (透明液體部分)
優格發酵時間越長,或者放置於冰箱保存後,表面會浮出一層淡黃色透明液體,為乳清蛋白,營養價值極高,是可以幫助肌肉生長的營養源,含有人體必須胺基酸與支鏈胺基酸,吸收速度快,可促進肌肉生長!
許多市售優格會添加其他物質增添風味,像是水果糖漿、香料安定劑、固形劑使其濃稠或凝固等,這些化學合成的物質吃多將造成身體負擔,因此挑選優格要會看包裝上的成分與營養標示表:
(1) 選擇使用100%生乳製作,且活菌數量須符合符合國家CNS優格製品每克需含有1000萬以上的活菌數的優格品質較好
活性乳酸菌是優格產品對人體最獨特的生理功能。在常溫無法保存,冷藏於攝氏05度為佳,室溫保存的「保久型」優酪乳是已經過滅菌處理,不具活性乳酸菌的生理功效。
(2)用蛋白質和SNF判別營養價值
優格產品約可從蛋白質和非乳脂肪固形物(Solidnot-fatSNF)推斷其營養價值。
蛋白質可反應優格被水分稀釋程度,數字高表示牛奶的比例高。而非乳脂肪固形物是指牛奶在除去水分及脂肪後所得的成分,含量高,表示營養價值較高。
(3) 優格內含的成分越多,糖與熱量的比例也相對越高,建議選擇無糖、蛋白質含量較高、熱量偏低的優格較好,不然反而吃進更多的糖而增加脂肪呀
如果怕單吃優格太酸,可以自行添加水果(莓果類、蘋果、奇異果香蕉等都很適合)、果醬、麥片等搭配享用,還可增加膳食纖維,營養健康。


圖片來源:
http://tw.gigacircle.com/3482602-1
資料來源:
http://ifitnessgo.pixnet.net/blog/post/87839722
https://goo.gl/1Haz00

http://www.foodcare.com.tw/label.aspx?article=903

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