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起司(Cheese)-食材介紹

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發表於 2017-2-14 16:24:17 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
起司,又名奶酪、乾酪、乳酪,音譯芝士、起司、起士,是多種乳製起司的通稱,有各式各樣的味道、口感和形式。
起司以奶類為原料,含有豐富的蛋白質、脂肪,鈣和磷,維他命A,維生素B。製作過程中通常加入凝乳酵素,造成其中的酪蛋白凝結,使乳品酸化,再將固體分離、壓製為成品,大多呈乳白色到金黃色。
起司依乳源、是否使用巴斯德消毒法、乳脂含量、細菌、霉、處理方法和發酵決定了他們的形狀,口感,及味道。

中國的起司品種有北京起司、廣東地區的大良牛乳、雲南的乳扇、乳餅等。
西方的起士品種常見如下:
1.白紋起司
布主要是在起司表面人工繁殖白黴菌所製成。這種白黴菌擁有強勁的蛋白質分解力,因此會從表面開始往中心熟成。當中心完全熟成與消失,起司就會進入口感最為綿滑,最為好吃的時期。而且在熟成的過程中,起司的濃郁度與香氣都會與日俱增。
2.藍紋起司
在法國被稱為「巴西里」的藍紋起司,最明顯的特徵就是佈滿巴西里末的外表。與白紋起司的差異之處在於藍紋起司是於內側繁殖黴菌,所以是從內部開始成熟的。雖然風味獨特而強烈,只要一習慣,就會為了那深奧的滋味深深著迷。而這款起司的歷史也已超過2000年以上。
3.非熟成(新鮮)起司
新鮮起司屬於農家的即興作品,也可說是起司的原點。與其他起司的差異之處在於保鮮期短。具代表性的白起司呈白色,具有與優格相似的酸味。
4.硬質/半硬質起司
硬質起司屬於一種登山的保存食物,經得起長時間的保存。製作方式雖然簡單,味道卻會隨著過熟成時間的長短而改變,有些還具有當地牛隻食用的花或牧草的香氣,滋味非常豐富而深奧。除了直接享用,切成片用於三明治,或先加熱融化,製作成所謂的「起司火鍋」,有些地區則會削成粉,撒在義大利麵或焗烤料理表面。
5.山羊起司
法語的chèvre 就是「山羊」的意思。據說山羊奶的成分與母奶相近,因此法國也將山羊起司當成斷奶食品使用。新鮮的山羊起司具有清爽酸味,入口即化的口感也令人印象深刻。一經熟成,會轉換成柔軟紮實的質感,山羊奶的醇厚感也會更為明顯。
6.洗浸式起司
所謂的Wash,顧名思義就是以鹽水或酒精一邊清洗表面,一邊讓起司熟成的意思。清洗表面的步驟可賦予起司適當的濕氣,也能讓與納豆菌同為短桿菌的「紅菌」繁殖。味道雖然難聞,但內部極為黏稠,風味也極為豐富。由於經過洗浸這道步驟,所以通常與當地的酒品很對味。


圖片來源:
https://www.fooding.com.tw/article-content.php?aid=103505
資料來源:
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%B9%BE%E9%85%AA
https://www.fooding.com.tw/article-content.php?aid=103505


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